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Jabalpur city is situated in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. After Indore and Bhopal, Jabalpur is the third most popular city in the Madhya Pradesh and is located in the Mahakaushal region of central India or eastern Madhya Pradesh. In the north it is bordered by Katni, In the north-east by Umaria, Dindori to the east, Mandla to the south-east, Seoni to the south, Narsimhapur to the south-west and Damoh to the north-west. Jabalpur is the administrative headquarters of Jabalpur district (the second most populous district of Madhya Pradesh) and Jabalpur division.
Historically, a center of Kalchuri and Gond dynasties, Jabalpur developed a syncretic culture influenced by the intermittent reigns of the Maratha and Mughal empires. In the early nineteenth century, it was gradually annexed in British India as Jubbulpore and incorporated as a major cantonment town. During the Indian independence movement, Jabalpur became the site of the historical Indian National Congress session in Tripuri which elected Subhash Chandra Bose as Congress President for the first time. Post-independence, there have been demands for a separate state of Mahakoshal with Jabalpur as its capital. During the early 1990s, the city gained national prominence following dozen cases of teenage self-immolations in the aftermath of Mandal Commission protests of 1990.
Geographically an important place, the ruling Gond dynasty of this place lent its name to the primordial continental mass Gondwanaland. Jabalpur was also the epicenter of a major earthquake in 1997. The geographic center of the contiguous India is located 30 km east of Jabalpur in Katangi village. Jabalpur is known for its picturesque marble rock formations (Bhedaghat) across the banks of river Narmada. Being the army headquarters of five states (Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar and Jharkhand), one-sixth of the city is occupied by the cantonment. Jabalpur is also the birthplace of the game of Snooker, a historic heart of Hindi literature movement and a prominent regional education hub. It is also a major spiritual center being the birthplace of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Osho Rajneesh and the site of an important Jain shrine Pisanhari Madiya. These factors lie behind the oft-quoted city's moniker Sanskaardhaani or the Cultural Capital (of Madhya Pradesh). Several important federal and state institutions are located in Jabalpur including The Madhya Pradesh High Court, Madhya Pradesh Electricity Board, Tropical Forest Research Institute, several ordinance factories and West Central Railway zonal headquarters.
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